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2-Minute Neuroscience: The Neuron


In this video, I discuss the neuron, briefly touching on all of the parts of a neuron including the dendrites, soma, axon hillock, axon, and axon terminals or synaptic boutons. I describe how a signal travels from the dendrites of a neuron, down the axon, and to the axon terminals to communicate with another neuron through the release of neurotransmitter. For a more in-depth 10-Minute Neuroscience video on the parts of a neuron, watch this: 🤍 For an article (on my website) explaining the structure and function of neurons, click this link: 🤍 The image of a brain used in this video is a CC image courtesy of _DJ_ on Flickr. The work can be seen here: 🤍 and the CC license can be seen here: 🤍 TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss the neuron. This is a brain. Estimates vary but right now the best guess seems to be that our brains contain around 85 billion neurons. The neuron is a nerve cell and is the primary functional unit of the nervous system. This is a generic image of a neuron. Neurons actually come in all shapes and sizes but is the prototypical version of a neuron that you’ll often see in a textbook. These structures extending from the left side of a neuron that look a little bit like tree branches are called dendrites. Dendrites are the area where neurons receive most of their information. There are receptors on dendrites that are designed to pick up signals from other neurons that come in the form of chemicals called neurotransmitters. Those signals picked up by dendrites cause electrical changes in a neuron that are interpreted in an area called the soma or the cell body. The soma contains the nucleus. The nucleus contains the DNA or genetic material of the cell. The soma takes all the information from the dendrites and puts it together in an area called the axon hillock. If the signal coming from the dendrites is strong enough then a signal is sent to the next part of the neuron called the axon. At this point the signal is called an action potential. The action potential travels down the axon which is covered with myelin, an insulatory material that helps to prevent the signal from degrading. The last step for the action potential is the axon terminals, also known as synaptic boutons. When the signal reaches the axon terminals it can cause the release of neurotransmitter. These purple structures represent the dendrites of another neuron. When a neurotransmitter is released from axon terminals, it interacts with receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, and then the process repeats with the next neuron. REFERENCE: Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, White LE. Neuroscience. 4th ed. Sunderland, MA. Sinauer Associates; 2008.

How Neurons Communicate


10-Minute Neuroscience: Neurons


In this video, I cover all of the main parts of a neuron including the dendrites, cell body (soma), axon hillock, axon, and axon terminals (synaptic boutons). I describe how a signal travels from the dendrites of a neuron, down the axon, and to the axon terminals to communicate with another neuron through the release of neurotransmitters. I also describe ways of categorizing neurons based on structure (i.e., multipolar, bipolar, unipolar, and pseudo-unipolar) and function (i.e., motor, sensory, and interneurons). Key points: 00:00 General introduction to neurons 1:17 How neurons communicate 2:12 Parts of a neuron 7:00 Classifying neurons based on structure 8:17 Classifying neurons based on function REFERENCES: Breedlove SM, Watson NV. Behavioral Neuroscience. 8th ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.; 2018. Kandel ER, Barres BA, Hudspeth AJ. 2013. Nerve Cells, Neural Circuitry, and Behavior. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neural Science, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

What Are Neurons and How Do They Work?


Neurons send signals through a mechanism called action potential. Action potentials are electrical signals that pass through the neuron’s axon. This causes the neuron to pass the signal to the next neuron. Action potentials are the reason the nervous system is able to respond to the environment in a matter of seconds. #brain #neuron #science We have a second channel! ScienceABC II 🤍 References: (1) Principles of Neuroscience - Eric Kandel (🤍 (2) BIOS Instant notes in Neuroscience - A. Longstaff, M.R. Ronczkowski (🤍 (3) The action potential - Barnett and Larkman 🤍 Original Article Link: 🤍 If you wish to buy/license this video, please write to us at admin🤍 Voice Over Artist: John Staughton ( 🤍 ) SUBSCRIBE to get more such science videos! 🤍 Follow us on Twitter! 🤍 Follow us on Facebook! 🤍 Follow our Website! 🤍 Instagram: 🤍scienceabcofficial Pinterest: 🤍scienceabc LinkedIn: Science ABC

Neurology | Neuron Anatomy & Function


Official Ninja Nerd Website: 🤍 Ninja Nerds! In this lecture Professor Zach Murphy will present on neuron anatomy and function. During this lecture we will discuss the anatomy and function of the cell body or soma, axon, and axon terminal. We hope you enjoy this lecture and be sure to support us below! Join this channel to get access to perks: 🤍 APPAREL | We are switching merchandise suppliers. DONATE PATREON | 🤍 PAYPAL | 🤍 SOCIAL MEDIA FACEBOOK | 🤍 INSTAGRAM | 🤍 TWITTER | 🤍 🤍NinjaNerdSci DISCORD | 🤍 #ninjanerd #NeuronAnatomyandFunction #Neuro

Neurology - Neuron


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Action Potential in the Neuron


This animation demonstrates the behavior of a typical neuron at its resting membrane potential, and when it reaches an action potential and fires, transmitting an electrochemical signal along the axon. It shows how the various components work in concert: Dendrites, cell body, axon, sodium and potassium ions, voltage-gated ion channels, the sodium-potassium pump, and myelin sheaths. It also shows the stages of an action potential: Polarization, depolarization, and hyperpolarization. The animation was co-developed by Harvard Extension School's Office of Digital Teaching and Learning, and instructors for the courses in neurobiology and human anatomy. Learn more about Harvard Extension School: 🤍

FINDING THAT CONNECTION© - neurons connecting to one another in a Petri dish - growth cones


FINDING THAT CONNECTION © This is my laboratory work, please see copyright details at bottom. You’re watching two neurons that I saw under the microscope sensing one another and connecting. There are 86 billion neurons in the brain - how do they know how to connect to other neurons or body parts when our bodies are developing? They use these webbed hand-like structures that you can see in this video. The finger like projections actively sense the environment around it. When we are developing in utero, you’ll find these “growth cones,” at the tip of every growing neuron, actively searching their way between cells, trying to find the right spot to connect to. When they make their connection, they become resorbed and disappear. I know - it’s heartbreaking that the video ends right when we get to the exciting part, but see the black wavering line in the bottom right? That’s what they look like after they’ve connected together in a Petri dish. When people see this video they often ask, is this what happens when we learn new things? Unfortunately not. Growth cones aren’t responsible for the connections between neurons that form in learning and memory (synapses). Those connections are much smaller and appear as thousands of tiny bumps along the length of the part of a neuron called a dendrite.‬ ‪ This is a video I took of a neuron in a culture dish that I was just about to toss out. I looked at it under the microscope and saw that something interesting was about to happen, so set up a recording. This video has been sped up - it’s the growth that occurred over the space of 20 minutes. This video belongs to me, Dr Lila Landowski. I am very happy for you to share it for teaching purposes, but please acknowledge me accordingly according to the Australian Copyright Act detail below. I keep seeing my video pop up without attribution 🥺 © Lila Maree Landowski [originally published online 14/11/2019; video generated in 2010] This video may be used elsewhere provided the watermarked version of this video is used, and the copyright holders name [Dr Lila Landowski 🤍rockatscientist] must not be adulterated, covered or cropped out. Captions or text associated with the use of the video must also  acknowledge the source of the video [Dr Lila Landowski 🤍rockatscientist]. Non watermarked use of this video, use of this video for advertising, or use of this video for production purposes requires the copyright owner’s express permission and an agreed compensation. These copyright terms are subject to change and it is the responsibility of the user to check prior to reusing the content. Support my work!: 🤍 First shared here: 🤍 #neuroscience #neurology #neurosurgery #brain #brains #neuron #neurons #research #cellculture #laboratory #science #scienceporn #learning #brainhealth #brainawarenessweek #neuro #neuroplasticity #sciencefacts #sciencememes #brainteaser #lablife #fyp #education #teaching #teachingresources #teachingkids #teachingtips #biology #biologia #biologymemes

Anatomy of a neuron | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy


Courses on Khan Academy are always 100% free. Start practicing—and saving your progress—now: 🤍 Neurons (or nerve cells) are specialized cells that transmit and receive electrical signals in the body. Neurons are composed of three main parts: dendrites, a cell body, and an axon. Signals are received through the dendrites, travel to the cell body, and continue down the axon until they reach the synapse (the communication point between two neurons). Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: 🤍 Missed the previous lesson? 🤍 Health & Medicine on Khan Academy: No organ quite symbolizes love like the heart. One reason may be that your heart helps you live, by moving ~5 liters (1.3 gallons) of blood through almost 100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) of blood vessels every single minute! It has to do this all day, everyday, without ever taking a vacation! Now that is true love. Learn about how the heart works, how blood flows through the heart, where the blood goes after it leaves the heart, and what your heart is doing when it makes the sound “Lub Dub.” About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit 🤍, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at 🤍khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Health & Medicine channel: 🤍 Subscribe to Khan Academy: 🤍

Structure of a Neuron | #aumsum #kids #science #education #children


Structure of a Neuron. The nervous system helps to sense things around us. Neuron is also known as the nerve cell and is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons help in receiving, processing and transmitting information. 3 components of neuron are Cell body or soma, Dendrites an Axon. Cell body consists of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Dendrites are short projections or extensions that stretch out of the cell body. Axon is a long, thread like projection of the neuron. It has an insulating and protective sheath called myelin sheath. Myelin sheath is made up of fats and proteins. The neurons carry messages in the form of electrical signals called nerve impulses. Dendrites pick up impulses from receptors and pass it to the cell body. The impulses then travel along the axon. Axon passes these impulses to another neuron through a junction called the synapse. The impulses are carried from one neuron to another. These impulses are finally delivered to the brain or the spinal cord.

Cells of the Nervous System (Neurons and Glia)


Dr. Mike explains what neurons and glia do within the Nervous System. He highlights the basic structure of a neuron and classifies glia according to their location within either the CNS or PNS. e.g. oligodendricytes, ependymal cells, astrocytes, microglia, schwann cells, and satellite cells.

Neurons or nerve cells - Structure function and types of neurons | Human Anatomy | 3D Biology


Neurons or nerve cells - Structure and function | Human Anatomy | Biology The nervous system is an essential part of the human body that helps in the transmission of signals across the various parts of the body, that is, it releases messages back and forth from the brain to the different parts of the body, and also helps in the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions of the body. At the cellular level, the nervous system consists of a special type of cell, called the neuron, also known as a "nerve cell". The neurons connect to each other using a synapse (which is a structure that acts like a pathway connection that transmits the signals to the other cells) to form the nervous system. Neurons have special structures that allow them to send signals rapidly and precisely to other cells by providing a common pathway for the passage of these electrochemical nerve impulses. Neurons are responsive in nature, by which we imply that Neurons response to feelings and communicate the presence of that feeling to the central nervous system which in-turn is processed and is sent to the other parts of the body for action. The neurons are the basic constituents of the brain, vertebral spinal cord, the ventral nerve cord and the peripheral ganglia( which is a mass of nerve cell bodies). Nervous system Neurons can be categorized into three types: sensory neurons, motor neurons and inter neurons. Sensory neurons allow us to receive information from the outside world through our senses. The sensory neurons evoke the sensation of touch, pain, vision, hearing and taste. These are usually present in the sensory organs, like the eyes, inner ear and so on, which send these signals to the spinal cord and the brain. Inter neurons communicate and connect with each other, and represent the majority of the neurons in our brain. They allow us to think see and perceive our surroundings. Motor neurons are neurons that receive impulses from the spinal cord or the brain and send them to the muscles causing muscular contraction, and these also affect the gland secretion. A typical neuron has a "soma" in its centre, which contains the nucleus of the cell. And hence this is where the protein synthesis occurs. The neural function is based on the synaptic signalling (the pathway that helps in the transmission of signals) process, which is partly electrical and partly chemical. The electrical aspect depends on properties of the neuron's membrane. Every neuron is surrounded by a plasma membrane, which is a bilayer of lipid molecules that comprise of various protein structures. A lipid bilayer is a powerful electrical insulator, but in neurons, many of the protein structures embedded in the membrane are electrically active. Cell division cannot take place in neurons as they lack one of the two cylindrical cellular structures that aid in cell division. This is consistent with a simple cell division nature of the cell. Dendrites are extensions of the cell with many branches, whose structure can be called as a "dendritic tree" . They project from the cell body and are sometimes referred to as fibres. They are also called as afferent processes because they transmit impulses to the neuron cell body . There is only one axon that projects from each cell body, which is a finer cable-like projector. It is usually elongated and it carries impulses away from the cell body, that is, away from the 'soma'. It is an efferent process. many axons are surrounded by a segmented white fatty substance called myelin sheaths.

Neuron action potential - physiology


What is a neuron action potential? Neurons use ions and electrical charges to relay signals from one neuron to the next, called an action potential. Find more videos at 🤍 Hundreds of thousands of current & future clinicians learn by Osmosis. We have unparalleled tools and materials to prepare you to succeed in school, on board exams, and as a future clinician. Sign up for a free trial at 🤍 Subscribe to our Youtube channel at 🤍 Get early access to our upcoming video releases, practice questions, giveaways, and more when you follow us on social media: Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Our Vision: Everyone who cares for someone will learn by Osmosis. Our Mission: To empower the world’s clinicians and caregivers with the best learning experience possible. Learn more here: 🤍 Medical disclaimer: Knowledge Diffusion Inc (DBA Osmosis) does not provide medical advice. Osmosis and the content available on Osmosis's properties (, YouTube, and other channels) do not provide a diagnosis or other recommendation for treatment and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosis and treatment of any person or animal. The determination of the need for medical services and the types of healthcare to be provided to a patient are decisions that should be made only by a physician or other licensed health care provider. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition.

Neuron Activity in 3-D


Researchers at MIT and the University of Vienna have created an imaging system that reveals neural activity throughout the brains of living animals. This technique, the first that can generate 3-D movies of entire brains at the millisecond timescale, could help scientists discover how neuronal networks process sensory information and generate behavior. The team used the new system to simultaneously image the activity of every neuron in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as the entire brain of a zebrafish larva, offering a more complete picture of nervous system activity than has been previously possible. The new approach, described May 18 in Nature Methods, could also help neuroscientists learn more about the biological basis of brain disorders. "We don't really know, for any brain disorder, the exact set of cells involved," Boyden says. "The ability to survey activity throughout a nervous system may help pinpoint the cells or networks that are involved with a brain disorder, leading to new ideas for therapies." Read more: 🤍 Video: Melanie Gonick, MIT News

The Nervous System, Part 1: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #8


Today Hank kicks off our look around MISSION CONTROL: the nervous system. Pssst... we made flashcards to help you review the content in this episode! Find them on the free Crash Course App! Download it here for Apple Devices: 🤍 Download it here for Android Devices: 🤍 Chapters: Introduction: Hank's Morning Routine 00:00 Nervous System Functions: Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output 1:17 Organization of Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 2:16 Neurons & Glial Cells 3:42 Central Nervous System Glial Cells: Astrocytes, Microglial, Ependymal, and Oligodendrocytes 4:17 Peripheral Nervous System Glial Cells: Satellite and Schwann 4:56 Cool Neuron Facts! 5:15 Neuron Structure 6:20 Classifying Neuron Structures: Multipolar, Bipolar, and Unipolar 7:00 Classifying Neuron Functionality: Sensory (Afferent), Motor (Efferent), Interneurons (Association) 7:47 Review 9:42 Credits 10:14 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at 🤍 Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - 🤍 Twitter - 🤍 Instagram - 🤍 CC Kids: 🤍

What are Nerve Cells, Neurons & Synapses? | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool


What are Nerve Cells, Neurons & Synapses? | Physiology | Biology | FuseSchool There are 3 different types of neuron, or nerve cell; the sensory neuron which detects the signal, the relay or intermediate neuron, and the motor neurons which trigger the response. We will also look at how synapses work; transmitting the impulse between neurons. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at 🤍, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: 🤍 Find all of our Biology videos here: 🤍 Find all of our Physics videos here: 🤍 Find all of our Maths videos here: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: 🤍 Follow us: 🤍 Befriend us: 🤍 This is an Open Educational Resource. If you would like to use the video, please contact us: info🤍

Growing Human Neurons Connected to a Computer


Neurons are amazing little microbes capable of learning and making decisions. Modern AI tries to take inspiration from living neurons, but why settle for the synthetic version? By growing human neurons directly connected to a computer it's possible to make a living AI of sorts capable of even complex tasks like flying a plane in a simulation. Today we explore our first attempt at doing exactly that. We cover building the first prototype multi electrode array, growing the neurons and attempting to take some readings from them. This is the first part of what will hopefully be a many part series, so stay tuned for updates! More reading/sources: Rat neuron video- 🤍 Rat neuron paper - 🤍 Multi electrode array fabrication - 🤍 Previous videos: Meat berry - 🤍 Magnetron build - 🤍 Gabes Stuff: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 _ Support the show and future projects: Patreon: 🤍 Ko-Fi: 🤍 Become a member: 🤍 Store: 🤍 _ My Social Media Pages: Instagram: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Website: 🤍 _ Special thanks to my amazing patrons and channel members! Afrotechmods Alex Alexander Marunowski Alexandre Guhur Ambrose Andre andrew james morris Anita Fowler Applied Science Austin Morris Ben Ben Reay Bennet Huch besenyeim BinarySplit Brady OBrien Chris the Mad Sciencer Comrade Spamuel Danny Chan Dave Yeagly David Choitz Dima Drew DeVault dstensnes Dustin Parciasepe Eisolu Elliot Turner emptymachine ethan lutz Eugene Pakhomov Ezekiel Dohmen Filipsi Frank genuinebyte Harry Pottash ian burghardt Jack Brown James Jaroslav Henner Jase Smith Jim Mussared John John De Witt John Wlazlo Jon Adams Jonathan Dashe Joshua Pedrick Justa Noman Justin Hendryx Kevin Kevin Forsythe kn0tsin Krys Kamieniecki Lambda AI Hardware Leon Leon Schutte Leslie Rohde Lewis Westbury Liam Scaife Louis Cashin Luc Ritchie Marco Reps Martin Haugsand Matthew Broerman Matthew Reece-Ford Maxwell Meinhard Absalon Michael Chatzidakis Monsyne Dragon narvutar1324 Nicholas Fletcher Nico Schlüter Overshafter Patrick Patrick Sweetman Paul Emmerich Paul Richmond Phelan O'Connell Philipp Weber Pietro Saccardi Piper Elinor Ralph Dratman Rauni Robert Boll robert braun Robert Miller Robert S. Sam Pinches sdrwer erwer Sean Coates Sebastiaan Schlappi Simon Convey Simon Hallam SkaveRat tain TheOneTrueJames TheQuickestBrownFox Tiffany Bennett Tom Bullock Tómas Árni Jónasson Vedran Bajic Virgil Ilian Walter Jones xj9 Áva Eriksdóttir Chris Modjeska Phillip Johnson andré bernard mennicken Jose Ayala Shwe Yin Aye Malcolm Berkeley Louis St Pierre Radio Astronomy (MSAS) stevenson primacio John Emery Ajit A bitizen248 Guillermo Alum flantc Gavin Lou just_noXi SheLovesItWhenYouPullOutThatPhenomenalDissertation Dr. Brandon Wiley Jonathan Nagel István Kiss Jorm Skagh txyzinfo Robert Boll trevor skjerpen adamklam1 Hunter Bagby Anthony M Kush Agarwal

What is a neuron?


The neuron. It is perhaps the most important cell in the human body. We have billions in our body and together they form a superhighway that sends information throughout our mind and body. But can you name the different parts? Alie Astrocyte explains a little more about the neuron and gives a concise overview of its anatomy. Learn more about the neuron: SciShow - 🤍 Khan Academy - 🤍 Nucleus Medical Medicine - 🤍 Sources: 86 billion neurons - 🤍 100 trillion connections - 🤍 Different types of neurons and basic neuron structure - 🤍 Myelin - 🤍 Blood vessels - 🤍 Glia cells - 🤍 Big thank you to Leo Torres for translating this video and providing us with Spanish subtitles. You can find him on Twitter at 🤍leocogsci or on his blog at 🤍 Neuro Transmissions is a channel on a mission to bring neuroscience to everyone. It's not rocket surgery, it's brain science! Learn all sorts of fun and interesting things with Alie Astrocyte every other Sunday by subscribing to the channel. Over and out. Want more? We use other social media too! 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 All content is original and/or owned by Neuro Transmissions. Credit: Intro vector graphics from Part of images from Motifolio drawing toolkits (🤍 were used to create animations. Instrumental Ending Produced by Trackmanbeatz : 🤍 The work by Trackmanbeatz is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 🤍



👉📖 READY TO ACE YOUR EXAM? 📚 GET STUDY NOTES ON PATREON! 🤍 The action potential is the mechanism by which nerve cells communicate and conduct information. This short lecture covers topics such as generation of neuronal action potential (nerve impulse), neuronal polarization, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, resting membrane potential, threshold potential, and refractory period. Thanks for watching and don't forget to SUBSCRIBE, hit the LIKE button👍 and click the BELL button🔔 for future notifications!!! Like what we do? Learn how to support us on Patreon! 💪🤍

Neuron Structure and Function


Learn about the structure and function of neurons (the cell of the nervous system) in this video!

What is a Neuron? Parts and Function


👉Check out my official Psych Explained Merch 🧠: 🤍 In this video, Dr. Kushner covers the parts and function of a neuron. And, three basic types of neurons: motor neuron (efferent), sensory neuron (afferent), and interneuron. "The human brain has 100 billion neurons, each neuron connected to 10 thousand other neurons. Sitting on your shoulders is the most complicated object in the known universe" - Michio Kaku

Neurons when it’s time to sleep #shorts #YoutubePartner


Neurons when it’s time to sleep #shorts #YouTubePartner

Action Potential in Neurons, Animation.


(USMLE topics) What is Action Potential? How is it Generated in Neuron? Clear and Concise Explanation of Phases. Purchase a license to download a non-watermarked copy of this video here: 🤍 ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: Cells are polarized, meaning there is an electrical voltage across the cell membrane. In a resting neuron, the typical voltage, known as the RESTING membrane potential, is about -70mV (millivolts). The negative value means the cell is more negative on the INSIDE. At this resting state, there are concentration gradients of sodium and potassium across the cell membrane: more sodium OUTSIDE the cell and more potassium INSIDE the cell. These gradients are maintained by the sodium-potassium pump which constantly brings potassium IN and pumps sodium OUT of the cell. A neuron is typically stimulated at dendrites and the signals spread through the soma. Excitatory signals at dendrites open LIGAND-gated sodium channels and allow sodium to flow into the cell. This neutralizes some of the negative charge inside the cell and makes the membrane voltage LESS negative. This is known as depolarization as the cell membrane becomes LESS polarized. The influx of sodium diffuses inside the neuron and produces a current that travels toward the axon hillock. If the summation of all input signals is excitatory and is strong enough when it reaches the axon hillock, an action potential is generated and travels down the axon to the nerve terminal. The axon hillock is also known as the cell’s “trigger zone” as this is where action potentials usually start. This is because action potentials are produced by VOLTAGE-gated ion channels that are most concentrated at the axon hillock. Voltage-gated ion channels are passageways for ions in and out of the cell, and as their names suggest, are regulated by membrane voltage. They open at some values of the membrane potential and close at others. For an action potential to be generated, the signal must be strong enough to bring the membrane voltage to a critical value called the THRESHOLD, typically about -55mV. This is the minimum required to open voltage-gated ion channels. At threshold, sodium channels open quickly. Potassium channels also open but do so more slowly. The initial effect is therefore due to sodium influx. As sodium ions rush into the cell, the inside of the cell becomes more positive and this further depolarizes the cell membrane. The increasing voltage in turn causes even more sodium channels to open. This positive feedback continues until all the sodium channels are open and corresponds to the rising phase of the action potential. Note that the polarity across the cell membrane is now reversed. As the action potential nears its peak, sodium channels begin to close. By this time, the slow potassium channels are fully open. Potassium ions rush out of the cell and the voltage quickly returns to its original resting value. This corresponds to the falling phase of the action potential. Note that sodium and potassium have now switched places across the membrane. As the potassium gates are also slow to close, potassium continues to leave the cell a little longer resulting in a negative overshoot called hyper-polarization. The resting membrane potential is then slowly restored thanks to diffusion and the sodium-potassium pump. During and shortly after an action potential is generated, it is impossible or very difficult to stimulate that part of the membrane to fire again. This is known as the REFRACTORY period. The refractory period is divided into absolute refractory and relative refractory. The absolute refractory period lasts from the start of an action potential to the point the voltage first returns to the resting membrane value. During this time, the sodium channels are open and subsequently INACTIVATED while closing and thus unable to respond to any new stimulation. The relative refractory period lasts until the end of hyper-polarization. During this time, some of the potassium channels are still open, making it difficult for the membrane to depolarize, and a much stronger signal is required to induce a new response. During an action potential, the sodium influx at a point on the axon spreads along the axon, depolarizing the adjacent patch of the membrane, generating a similar action potential in it. The sodium currents diffuse in both directions on the axon, but the refractory properties of ion channels ensure that action potential propagates ONLY in ONE direction. This is because ONLY the unfired patch of the axon can respond with an action potential; the part that has just fired is unresponsive until the action potential is safely out of range.

Neuron Structure and Function - How Your Brain Cells Work


This video is all about how your neurons (brain and nerve cells) work! Neury the Neuron is from here: 🤍 Music: Storyblocks audio

Neurons And Neurotransmitters | A Complete Guide


Take an in-depth look at how neurons and neurotransmitters interact to influence bodily functions! This comprehensive video will equip you with all the knowledge you need to understand this complex area of Science. #Neuron #neurotransmitters #brainanatomy

Inside the brain 🧠 . ( NEURONS ). #shorts #neuron #brain


NEURONS Neurons (also called neurones or nerve cells) are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system, the cells responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to our muscles, and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between. #shorts #medical #biology #shortvideo #3danimation #animation #brain #neuron #neurons #neurology #nerves #nervecell #brain #brainpower

ANIMATED Neurons | Control and Coordination Biology | CBSE Class 10 2023 - 24 @VedantuClass910


🟢ANIMATED Neurons | Control and Coordination Biology | CBSE Class 10 2023 - 24 🤍VedantuClass910 _ 👉🏻 All Subject One shot Playlist : 🤍 👉🏻 Sprint X Playlist : 🤍 👉🏻 Revise India Playlist : 🤍 👉🏻 Assertion and Reasoning series All Subjects: 🤍 👉🏻 Case Base Questions All Subjects: 🤍 👉🏻 Super 30: 🤍 👉🏻 Super 100: 🤍 👉🏻 Revise India January Edition: 🤍 👉🏻 Super 50:🤍 _ 🖇️ Telegram Channel: 🤍 🔴About this session: - In this animated video, Amrit Sir explains the concept of neurons in control and coordination biology for CBSE Class 10 students. With visually appealing graphics, this video simplifies the complex topic of neurons and their role in the nervous system. This video will be extremely helpful for students preparing for the 2023-24 CBSE board exams. 📢🔔 Join our telegram channel: 🤍 Stay tuned for more quality lecture videos and ❤️Make sure to SUBSCRIBE - 🤍 and don't forget to press the bell icon 🔔 Control and Coordination CBSE Class 10 Biology Control and Coordination Class 10 Control and Coordination Class 10 Vedantu Class 10 Science Control and Coordination Hormones in Animals Class 10 CBSE Hormones in Animals Class 10 Vedantu 9 and 10 CBSE 2024 Class 10 Control and Coordination Amrit Sir CBSE Board Exam 2024 Control and Coordination Class 10 One Shot Class 10 Control and Coordination ANIMATED Neurons Control and Coordination Biology Class 10 Biology #cbseboardexam2024 #vedantu9and10 #boardexam2024 #vedantu #cbseclass10 #controlandcoordination #cbse2024 #class10 #amritsirvedantu

Neuron |How nervous system works|


Cells within the nervous system, called neurons, communicate with each other in unique ways. The neuron is the basic working unit of the brain, a specialized cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. The brain is what it is because of the structural and functional properties of interconnected neurons. The mammalian brain contains between 100 million and 100 billion neurons, depending on the species. Each mammalian neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. three types of neurons 1 Sensory neuron 2 Motor neuron 3 Inter-neuron or associate neuron #StructureOf Neuron #PartsOfNeuron

This Neuron Helps People Walk Again | SciShow News


Order your SciShow merch here: 🤍 There’s been some big news in neuron science this week as individuals suffering paralysis regain mobility and music might have a secret that gets us to dance. Hosted by: Reid Reimers (he/him) SciShow is on TikTok! Check us out at 🤍 Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: 🤍 Huge thanks go to the following Patreon supporters for helping us keep SciShow free for everyone forever: Matt Curls, Alisa Sherbow, Dr. Melvin Sanicas, Harrison Mills, Adam Brainard, Chris Peters, charles george, Piya Shedden, Alex Hackman, Christopher R, Boucher, Jeffrey Mckishen, Ash, Silas Emrys, Eric Jensen, Kevin Bealer, Jason A Saslow, Tom Mosner, Tomás Lagos González, Jacob, Christoph Schwanke, Sam Lutfi, Bryan Cloer Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? SciShow Tangents Podcast: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 #SciShow #science #education Walking: 🤍 Dancing: 🤍 🤍 🤍 Thumbnail: 🤍 Image Sources: ​​🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍

Growing Living Rat Neurons To Play... DOOM?


Head to 🤍 to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain using code: thethoughtemporium _ First Episode: 🤍 Meat robot: 🤍 Meatcubator: 🤍 _ Support the show and future projects: Patreon: 🤍 Ko-Fi: 🤍 Become a member: 🤍 Store: 🤍 Our Social Media Pages: Tiktok: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Website: 🤍 _ More resources: Rat Brain Flight 🤍 Neuron Robot 🤍 Pong 🤍 Organoids 🤍 Growing neurons 🤍 microfluidic organoid 🤍 _ 0:00 Intro 1:50 Past examples 3:00 How this works 9:55 sponsor 10:47 Where we're at 14:00 growing neurons 20:00 results 23:30 Next time

A normal neuron and a mutated neuron develop side by side.


This time lapse video shows development of a normal neuron (left) and a mutated neuron that does not express the Ena/VASP proteins. Cultured for two days, the normal one extends an axon and many dendrites, while the mutated neuron fails to make such extensions. Video / Erik Dent and Frank Gertler Full Story - 🤍 Original post on MIT TechTV - 🤍

Neurons do taxes #shorts


Neuron physiology in Hindi | Types | Structure | Sensory & Motor nerve | Neuron parts


Hello Friends Welcome to Rajneet Medical Education In this video I explained about :- #neuronphysiology #neuroninhindi #neuron #physiology #nervecell #structure of #neuron #functions of #neuron #nerve #cell in #hindi #cellbody #dendrites #axon #sensory #nerve #motor #nerve #interneuron If you have any queries regarding this video, Please drop your comment in comment box, I would love to answer. If you like the video, Please like, share and subscribe channel. Thank you. Instagram - 🤍 #rjmedicaleducation #coachingfreeindia #rajneetmedicaleducation

Nervous Tissue || Structure II 3D Animation Video


Nervous Tissue || Structure II 3D Animation Video Nervous tissue makes up the different parts of our nervous system. It allows us to receive stimuli and process the information. Learn more about this tissue and take a short quiz at the end. What Is Nervous Tissue? It is hard to imagine a moment during our waking hours when our senses are not in use. We are constantly bombarded with sensory input, from a delicious aroma wafting our way to a painful stubbed toe. All of this information is processed by our brain every millisecond. Some sensory experiences are positive, and some we'd rather forget. But none of our senses would even function without the existence of our nervous system. There are several main components of our nervous system, and they are composed of nervous tissue. The word tissue tends to elicit the thought of wiping runny noses. But in terms of our body, tissue is defined as a group of cells with the same general functions forming organs and other body parts. Of the five main types of body tissue, nervous tissue plays an important role in that it is responsible for receiving, sending, and processing sensory input. In this lesson, learn about the components of nervous tissue and gain a better understanding of how it works for our body. Types of Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue makes up three major parts of our nervous system: nerves, the spinal cord and the brain. Our nervous system consists of two main parts: peripheral and central. The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that extend to all reaches of the body or the periphery. The central nervous system is made up of the spinal cord and brain and is the central processing center for all stimuli. Peripheral nervous tissue consists of nerves made up of nerve cells called neurons. Nerves extend all over the body, from the tips of the fingers to internal organs. They form a long line of connectivity, like a chain of paper clips linked together. Nerves connect to the spinal cord, which in turn, connects to the brain. So when you feel a stimulus in your toe, for example, the sensory impulse must travel from the nerves, all the way to the brain and back in order for you to process that feeling. Nerves Extending From Arm to Fingers Nerves The spinal cord and brain are also made up of nerves. These nerves are housed in a soft material known as matter. Within the spinal cord, we find gray and white matter holding nerves in place, as well as spinal fluid. And, of course, the brain is also made up of gray matter as well as white matter, with nerves embedded within. Brain and Spinal Cord are Nervous Tissue Central Nervous System Function of Nervous Tissue Our nervous tissue allows us to experience stimuli and then make a response. For example, imagine a scenario in which you are attempting to hammer a nail into the wall. After two tries, you accidentally hammer your finger. Now let's freeze that moment. At the actual split-second that contact is made, there is no pain. At least not yet. But wait a millisecond, and the throbbing begins. Why did it take time before you felt the pain? Let's zoom in on the nerve cells themselves to better understand the entire process. Neurons are an extremely unique type of cell specialized just for work within the nervous system. They consist of a cell body and then appendages that reach out from that central body. If you took a spoonful of paint and threw it on the floor, you might end up with a shape similar to a neuron. The extensions, or appendages coming from the receiving end of the cell body are called dendrites. Dendrites have many different branches, like dozens of little fingers grasping for the incoming information. These can be very long, up to a meter in humans. On the transmitting side of the cell body, we find a long extension called the axon. Like the barrel of a gun, the axon fires the impulse to the next neuron.

Nervenzelle / Neuron - Aufbau und Funktion [Biologie, Neurobiologie, Oberstufe,]


In diesem Video werden wir uns mit dem Aufbau und der Funktion von Nervenzellen beschäftigen. Es ist das Nervensystem mitsamt seiner Nervenzellen, das uns erstaunliche Fähigkeiten ermöglicht: Euer Gehirn mit einer überwältigenden Anzahl an Nervenzellen – ca. 100 Mrd. sind es, versetzt euch in die Lage, den Inhalt dieses Videos zu lernen. (Zusammenfassung am Ende) Man muss sich an dieser Stelle einmal die Leistung von Nervenzellen vor Augen führen, die sich z.B. darin äußert, dass ihr fast gleichzeitig zu dem, was ihr hört und seht, Notizen machen könnt. Nervenzellen – auch Neurone genannt – übermitteln Informationen von den Sinneszellen an das Zentralnervensystem, integrieren und speichern Informationen, übermitteln Befehle an Muskeln und Drüsen. Wenn ihr dieses Video guckt, nehmt ihr audiovisuell sowohl das, was ich spreche über eure Ohren, als auch die Abbildungen aus dem Video mit euren Augen wahr – und zwar gleichzeitig. Es braucht keine Sekunde, bis die aufgenommenen Informationen über die sensorischen Nerven zum Gehirn weitergeleitet, verarbeitet und über motorische Nerven zur Hand transportiert werden, sodass ihr die Informationen aus dem Video verschriftlichen könnt. Ihr merkt also: Nervensysteme sind Informationssysteme – und das Nervensystem durchzieht den gesamten Körper . Die erstaunliche Leistung des Nervensystems, Informationen in so schneller Zeit weiterzuleiten, verdankt es den Eigenschaften eines einzigartigen Zelltyps: Den Nervenzellen. Anhand dieser schematischen Darstellung einer Nervenzelle lassen sich gut die wesentlichen Bestandteile einer Nervenzelle darstellen. Die Grundstruktur besteht aus vier Regionen: - Dem Zellkörper – auch Soma genannt - Die Verzweigungen am Zellkörper – die sogenannten Dendriten - Der längliche Fortsatz – er wird als Axon bezeichnet - Die Verästelungen am Ende des Axons – die synaptischen Endknöpfchen bzw. synaptischen Endigungen Die Nervenzellen stehen in einem riesigen Netzwerk miteinander in Verbindung und leiten Informationen weiter. Wie genau trägt der Aufbau einer Nervenzelle zur raschen Informationsweiterleitung bei und wie genau erfolgt die Weiterleitung von Informationen? Die Information enthält eine Nervenzelle in Form eines spezifischen Reizes von anderen Nervenzellen oder Sinneszellen. An einem seiner zahlreichen Dendriten empfängt eine Nervenzelle den spezifischen Reiz, z.B. das elektrische Signal einer Nachbarzelle. Der Begriff Dendrit kommt vom griechischen dendron für Baum; die Funktion dieser baumartigen Strukturen ist es also, Informationen von anderen Nervenzellen oder Sinneszellen zu empfangen. Die Struktur einer Nervenzelle, mit einer Vielzahl an Dendriten ausgestattet zu sein, ermöglicht ihr, dass sie sehr effektiv Informationen von einer benachbarten Nervenzelle aufnehmen kann. Denn durch die vielen Verzweigungen der Dendriten wird die Oberfläche in diesem Bereich der Nervenzelle um ein Vielfaches erhöht – eine große Oberfläche, die die Kontaktaufnahme erheblich vereinfacht. Die von den Dendriten gesammelten Informationen gelangen über das Soma zu einem Bereich, den man als Axonhügel bezeichnet, wo ein Nervenimpuls bzw. Aktionspotenzial generiert wird. Das Soma – der Zellkörper – enthält den Zellkern sowie den größten Teil der Zellorganellen. Wie genau ein Nervenimpuls erzeugt wird, soll nicht Bestandteil dieses Videos sein – hierfür verlinke ich euch einmal das entsprechende Video. So viel sei an dieser Stelle aber erwähnt: Eine einzelne Nervenzelle kann durch seine etlichen Dendriten über die präsynaptischen Endigungen vieler weiterer Nervenzellen in Kontakt treten und so bis zu 1000 Eingangssignale anderer Nervenzellen empfangen. Die Folge ist, dass sich die elektrischen Eigenschaften der Membran verändern. Eigentlich ist das Innere der Membran im Ruhezustand gegenüber der Außenseite negativ geladen – man spricht in diesem Zusammenhang auch von einem Ruhemembranpotenzial, das ungefähr bei -70 mV liegt. Infolge eines elektrischen Reizes kommt es zu einer Veränderung des Membranpotentials – es verschiebt sich zu einem positiveren Wert, es ist also weniger negativ als noch im Ruhezustand. Verschiebt sich das Membranpotenzial so stark, dass ein bestimmter Schwellenwert erreicht wird, dann wird am Axonhügel ein Nervenimpuls bzw. ein Aktionspotenzial generiert. Über den langen Fortsatz eines Neurons, dem sogenannten Axon, wird das Aktionspotenzial zu den synaptischen Endigungen weitergeleitet. Auch wenn wir gerade besprochen haben, dass eine Nervenzelle bis zu 1000 Eingangssignale anderer Nervenzellen empfangen kann – sie erzeugt nur ein einziges Ausgangssignal: und zwar ein sich entlang des Axons fortpflanzendes Aktionspotenzial bzw. Nervenimpuls. LG und lasst gerne ein Abo da! :)

2-Minute Neuroscience: Synaptic Transmission


In my 2-Minute Neuroscience videos I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this video, I discuss synaptic transmission. I describe the synapse, synaptic cleft, release of neurotransmitter and its interaction with receptors, and the ways neurotransmitter is cleared from the synaptic cleft. For a more in-depth 10-minute video on synaptic transmission, watch this 10-Minute Neuroscience video: 🤍 For more neuroscience articles, videos, and a complete neuroscience glossary, check out my website at 🤍 ! TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss synaptic transmission. Most communication between neurons occurs at a specialized structure called a synapse. A synapse is an area where two neurons come close enough to one another that they are able to pass chemical signals from one cell to another. The neurons are not actually connected, but are separated by a microscopically small space called the synaptic cleft. The cleft is less than 40 nanometers wide; by comparison a human hair is about 75,000 nanometers. The neuron where the signal is initiated is called the presynaptic neuron, while the neuron that receives the signal is called the postsynaptic neuron. In the presynaptic neuron, there are chemical signals called neurotransmitters that are packaged into small sacs called vesicles. Each vesicle can contain thousands of neurotransmitter molecules. When the presynaptic neuron is excited by an electrical signal called an action potential it causes these vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release their contents into the synaptic cleft. Once they are in the synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters interact with receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. They bind to these receptors and can cause an action to occur in the postsynaptic cell as a result. This action may involve increasing the likelihood that the postsynaptic cell will become activated and itself fire an action potential, or decreasing it (inhibition). Eventually, the neurotransmitter molecules must be cleared from the synaptic cleft. Some of them will simply drift away in a process called diffusion. In some cases, the neurotransmitter is taken back up into the presynaptic neuron in a process called reuptake. Once back inside the presynaptic neuron, the neurotransmitter can be recycled and reused. In other cases, enzymes break down the neurotransmitter within the synapse. Then the component parts can be sent back into the presynaptic neuron to make more neurotransmitter. REFERENCE: Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, White LE. Neuroscience. 4th ed. Sunderland, MA. Sinauer Associates; 2008.

Air Es bikin Gendut?


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Mirror Neurons | What are mirror neurons and why are they important?


This video talks about mirror neurons and how do mirror neurons affect behavior? article link : 🤍

Synaptic Transmission | Neuron


In this video, Dr Mike explores how a neuron can send a signal across a synapse to either stimulate or inhibit another neuron or muscle or gland. He discusses action potentials, calcium channels, vesicles filled with neurotransmitters, and more!!

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